Contact the copyright holder and request permission.
Identify the copyrighted work.
Identify what part of the copyrighted work you will use.
Describe -- very specifically -- all the ways you will use the copyrighted content (in an article, in a book, in an online classroom, on a web page, etc.), including if it will be used in more than one way.
Describe the audience who will see the copyrighted content in your work.
Keep all documentation associated with your attempts to obtain permission, including the documentation that demonstrates the permission was given.
If permission is denied then:
Reconsider a fair use analysis; can the amount or type of copyrighted material be adjusted in order to make a fair use argument?
Look for comparable alternative content -- content with a Creative Commons license or content that has entered the public domain or content that is available through a license.
Alter your planned use for the copyrighted material.
Consider the risk versus the benefits of using the copyrighted material without getting permission -- especially if the potentially copyrighted material is associated with an orphan work. Send a message to email@example.com for help making this determination.