Skip to Main Content

Biblical Studies Research

Citation Tutorials

Citation Elements

Effective referencing of sources requires comprehension of the constituent elements of a bibliographic citation. Please click the following embedded link, "How to Read a Citation," and read the page entitled "Citation" to review the elements of a bibliographic citation.

"Techniques for Avoiding Plagiarism"

David Gardner (University of Hong Kong) reviews two techniques for ethically using the work of others in one's writing: 1) paraphrasing and 2) observing "the rules" of 'direct' borrowing.1 Please click the following link, "Techniques for Avoiding Plagiarism," and read his descriptions in detail.

"Knowing What to Acknowledge"

Referencing sources requires the ability to distinguish between what is and what is not one's own material. It also requires the ability to discriminate between "common knowledge" and "other people's independent thoughts and experiences."2 Please click open the link, "Knowing What to Acknowledge," and read the entry of the same title.


1. David Gardner. "Plagiarism and How to Avoid It." University of Hong Kong, [accessed August 18, 2010]

2. "Knowing What to Acknowledge." University of Melbourne: Academic Honesty and Plagiarism, [accessed August 19. 2010]

University Libraries

One Bear Place #97148
Waco, TX 76798-7148

(254) 710-6702